Evidence-Based Interventions

The MotivAider

The MotivAider is a simple electronic device that vibrates at set intervals.  This works as a self-tracker for behavior. It is great for the off task student (ADHD) who needs a private reminder to be on task.    

Price list   http://habitchange.com/docn/pricelist.pdf

Invisible Clock

The Invisible clock is a small personal timer with a silent vibration or beeping alarm. It has seven modes ( five timing modes and two adjustment modes). This has more features; however, the features can create more distractions. The cost is currently $39.95 with free shipping in the US. 

//Marzano Strategiesare instructional strategies that proove to increase academic achievement. There are 8 strategies but I am only studying 4.
1. Identifying Similarites and Differences
2. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
3. Nonlingusitic Representations
4. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
*While these stragies are known to raise academics, I feel they are also  ways to reduce negative behaviors. They are engaging and provide feedback along with setting goals and objectives.
For more information, go to:http://marzanoresearch.com   and    [www.middleweb.com/MWLresources/marzchat1.html]

Behavioral Intervention Strategies

Our goal as educators is for all our students to experience success in school. Following is a list of behavior interventions I found on an internet search.  These behavioral interventions are central to providing behavioral support to all students and especially those with challenging behaviors.  Lujan (2008) suggests the to following research-based intervention strategies for a successful learning environment.

Redirection/Calming
• Watch for signs of student frustration and use de-escalation strategies to redirect and calm a student.
• Be alert to triggers that lead to misbehavior    
• Use a soft, soothing voice when redirecting/directing a student to focus
• Call student by name and discreetly redirect
• Intervene quickly at the first sign of a student losing control
• Use verbal or nonverbal cues to refocus a student
• Assign a task for redirection (e.g., passing out paper, running an errand, taking a note to a neighboring teacher)
• Teach students to use positive self-talk
•  Lead students to recognize when a problem situation might occur and what action to take
• Provide a cool down area in the classroom that a student can access when needed
• Use physical activities to relieve stress (e.g., walking fast, using clay, squeezing a stress ball)
Giving Directions
• Give explicit directions in an appropriate environment to promote student success.
•  Use a signal to gain the attention of students prior to giving directions (e.g., clapping pattern, raised hand, bell ringing, music)
•  Face students when you address them
• Give clear, simple directions • Give one direction at a time, dividing the task into smaller segments
• Write directions on the board or use visual displays to add meaning
• Model directions using a visual reminder for all to see
• Allow students to ask questions to clarify any misunderstandings
• Avoid unnecessary talking after directions are stated and allow five seconds "wait time" for students to comply
• Repeat directions after "wait time" if needed • Give praise and positive feedback to students when explicit directions are followed
•  Follow up with praise and reinforcement after a task is completed
•  Use non-disruptive techniques such as eye contact, close proximity, or a note for a non-compliant student to enforce following directions  
Discipline/Consequences
• Clearly define expectations and motivate students with positive reinforcement
• Teach rules and procedures
• Plan and inform students of consequences that relate to misbehaviors
• Teach student to take responsibility for self and actions
• Communicate the classroom behavior plan to students and parents
• Use I messages to let students know what is expected (e.g., "Linda, I need you to put the book inside your desk.")
• Avoid using threats      
Defiant and Challenging Behavior
• Use strategies to manage students who exhibit defiant or challenging behaviors.
• Analyze and document an inappropriate situation to gather information on what might have triggered the   misbehavior.
• Determine if an element in the environment needs adjustment to avoid the display of inappropriate behavior by a student
•  Develop a plan to prevent triggers (e.g., hunger, lack of sleep, confusing directions) that lead to misbehavior
• Increase positive reinforcement and feedback
•  Have planned responses to avoid an emotional reaction
• Recognize improvements in behavior with praise and encouragement
•  Encourage defiant students to keep a daily log of successes and accomplishments to track improvement
•  Teach students to take responsibility for their behaviors •  Refrain from engaging in an argument or power struggle
•  Refuse to threaten or plead with students •  Teach students an alternative to aggression (e.g., Stop, Think, Act)
•  Acknowledge student's feelings when upset (e.g., "I understand you are upset.")
• Use a calm manner and positive body language
• Keep a sense of humor • Hold private conversations away from others
• Eliminate nagging, fussing, demands, and threats from conversation
• Teach students a problem-solving approach to use when confronted with a conflict
Transitions
• Reduce the amount of downtime between activities or a change in subjects
• Establish clear, consistent routines and expectations for accomplishing daily tasks and activities
• (e.g., entering the classroom, taking attendance, handing in homework, working in groups,
• working independently) • Provide daily warm-ups or bell-ringer activities for immediate student engagement • Post and adhere to a daily or weekly schedule incorporating transitional times
• Notify students of any schedule changes in advance
• Eliminate disruptions between lessons or activities through careful planning and preparation
• Model appropriate procedures and signals for transitioning; have students practice all
• procedures; give feedback as they practice
• Design the layout of the classroom to facilitate a smooth flow so students move around the room with ease
• Make materials quickly and easily accessible to students
• Give consistent visual or auditory signals and verbal cues to alert students to a transition (e.g., bell ringing, clapping rhythm, countdown, overhead timer, sounding a clicker, playing music)
• Use transition signals in advance to allow students to finish and prepare for the next activity
• Provide "transition time" for students to follow through and/or prepare before the next activity begins or before instructions are given
• Circulate among students during transition times to assist, prompt, or intervene before a  disruption occurs or escalates
•  Provide incentives or other reinforcers for smooth and successful transitions
• Teach, model, and practice specific procedures and expectations for out-of-class activities (e.g., walking in hallways, cafeteria routines, attendance at an assembly)
• Monitor students during class changes, lunch, recess, and dismissal
• Provide behavioral contracts for students who have difficulty in out-of-class settings (e.g., bus, playground, cafeteria)
•  Offer school-wide incentives and positive reinforcers to motivate appropriate behaviors outside the classroom
• Prepare and organize instructional materials in daily files or baskets for easy access   Refer to the Mentoring Minds' Behavior Guide™ for more behavior strategies Lujan, M. (2008).  Mentoring Minds. 
Retrieved from: http://www.casdk12.net/ghs04/SRB/5-Curriculum/Behavior%20intervention%20strategies.pdf

Research from East Carolina University: There are 6 common reasons for Behavior Problems:

1.Student has not learned the behavior. The int//erventions for this problem is as follows;

Sit and Watch
The goal of this intervention is to help children learn appropriate behavior through structured observation. This intervention also has a time-out procedure. The student’s contingent observation is used to promote appropriate classroom behavior through peer modeling.

Active Teaching of Rules
Clearly and specifically teach and review classroom rules/procedures through modeling, practice, and specific, immediate, positive feedback. This intervention is related to direct instruction methodologies, which are supported by a substantial literature base.

Say Show Check
Each of the classroom rules and why adhering to each rule is important is verbalized to the class. Modeling what adherence to each rule would look like and what non-adherence to each rule would look like is next. Students then scrutinize non-adherence, re-practice appropriate rule behavior, and are praised for demonstrating proper rule following. This intervention is consistent with the Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS) Model, and offers an example of how such a model would work in a single classroom.

2. Appropriate behavior is positively punished The follwing interventions are suggested;

Removal of Punishment
Positive punishment occurs when an aversive stimulus as a consequence is applied in response to appropriate behavior. The presentation of an aversive stimulus causes a decrease in appropriate behavior and has long-term behavior effects. The removal of the positive punishment involves the elimination of this punishment so that it is more likely that appropriate behavior will occur in the future.

Positive Peer Reporting
Positive Peer Reporting (PPR) is a classwide intervention designed to increase the social involvement of socially withdrawn children. The primary component of PPR is that children are provided with structured peer praise for engaging in appropriate social behaviors. Children who are severely socially withdrawn, neglected, socially aggressive, or socially isolated can benefit from this intervention.

3.Appropriate behavior results in loss of desired activity (negatively punished). The following interventions are suggested:

Response Cards
Response cards are cards or signs that may be held up by students in order to allow classwide responding.

Guided Notes
Guided Notes provide a handout of notes that have blank spaces for writing down lesson concepts, allowing the student opportunities to demonstrate appropriate classroom behavior. Notes are reviewed by the teacher, providing positive reinforcement. This intervention can be used with children of many ages (especially those in grade four through twelve), with or without disabilities. Guided Notes can be adapted to any instructional level and altered for students with specific skill deficits. Guided Notes are inexpensive, efficient, allow teachers to exhibit their own style, and are often preferred over “regular” notes by both teachers and students.

Behavioral Contracts
To lower the incidence of inappropriate behaviors, including escape behaviors, the child, teacher and parent will write a contract of appropriate behavior goals. Reinforcements will be given at different stages according to the contract.

4.Inappropriate behavior removes student from something they do not want to do. The following intervnetions are suggested;

Response Cost Raffle
This intervention is a low-cost classroom management strategy developed for students with mild to moderate behavior problems. This intervention is both efficient & effective without the use of a complex token economy system. There is a large body of evidence on the use of response cost behavior management strategies to reduce disruptive behaviors. This type of intervention will generalize across settings and grade level.

The Good Behavior Game
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is an intervention designed to decrease inappropriate classroom behaviors by reinforcing appropriate classroom behavior. The specific format for the implementation of this intervention includes dividing students into teams and distributing group-earned rewards. When someone on the team engages in an inappropriate classroom behavior, the team receives a mark. The teams who receive less than the specified amount of marks for inappropriate behavior receive a reward. The teamwork component of this intervention will reduce the incidence of students providing positive peer attention for inappropriate behavior.

Reducing Disruptive Behavior with Randomized Group Contingencies
This intervention uses a group contingency to alter student’s disruptive behavior with Interdependent group reinforcers. With an interdependent group reinforcer, students have to rely on one another to gain access to the reward. “Reinforcement increases target behavior, whereas punishment decreases the target behavior (Kelshaw- Levering, Sterling-Turner, & Henry, 2000). By removing the reinforcement or “reward” for undesired behavior and increasing the reward for desired behavior with class-wide randomized group contingency, simultaneously ALL students can be rewarded for their positive behavior and potentially punished for negative behavior. There is a large body of evidence on the use of reinforcement to decrease disruptive behavior. This type of intervention is should generalize across settings

Choice of Task Sequence
To lower incidences of inappropriate behavior, child will engage in choice. Research has found that just making a choice is reinforcing

5.Inappropriate behavior is positively reinforced. The following intervetnions are suggested:

Response Cost Raffle
This intervention is a low-cost classroom management strategy developed for students with mild to moderate behavior problems. This intervention is both efficient & effective without the use of a complex token economy system. There is a large body of evidence on the use of response cost behavior management strategies to reduce disruptive behaviors. This type of intervention will generalize across settings and grade level.

The Good Behavior Game
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is an intervention designed to decrease inappropriate classroom behaviors by reinforcing appropriate classroom behavior. The specific format for the implementation of this intervention includes dividing students into teams and distributing group-earned rewards. When someone on the team engages in an inappropriate classroom behavior, the team receives a mark. The teams who receive less than the specified amount of marks for inappropriate behavior receive a reward. The teamwork component of this intervention will reduce the incidence of students providing positive peer attention for inappropriate behavior.

6. They have not had to do the behavior that way before. The following interventions are suggsted:

Incorporate Functional Mediators
Academic or behavior problems may stem from lack of generalization. The student may know the skill but has not learned to generalize it to a new environment. This method incorporates teaching with artificial cues (cues that are not naturally used in generalizing environment) which include using physical object cues, social cues, self-regulated physical object cues, and self-regulated verbal cues.

Train Diversely
Academic or behavior problems may stem from lack of generalization. The student may know the skill but has not learned to generalize it to a new environment. Training and instruction can be adjusted to maximize potential for generalization. Trainers need to cautiously keep the balance between behavior acquisition (learning the behavior) and behavior robustness (how many environments can the trained behavior be used in?) Four ways to alter training in order to facilitate generalization: use sufficient stimulus exemplars, use sufficient response exemplars, make antecedents less discriminable, and make consequences less discriminable.

THis was a wonderful site that gave me great interventions for exactly the sepcific behavior problems. For more information, http://ecu.edu

‘Defensive Behavior Management’: Advance Planning, Connecting With the Student, and Defusing Crisis Situations

Intervention Steps: Defensive behavior management is implemented through these steps:

1.Understanding the Problem and Using Proactive Strategies to Prevent It. The teacher collects informationthrough direct observation and perhaps other meansabout specific instances of student problem behavior and the instructional components and other factors surrounding them. The teacher analyzes this information to discover specific ‘trigger’ events that seem to set off the problem behavior(s). Examples of potential triggers include lack of skills; failure to understand directions; fatigue because of work volume; reluctance to demonstrate limited academic skills in the presence of peers or adults; etc.).

As the teacher identifies elements in the classroom environment that appear to trigger student non-compliance or defiance, the instructor adjusts instruction to provide appropriate student support to prevent behavioral episodes (e.g., providing the student with additional instruction in a skill; repeating directions and writing them on the board; ‘chunking’ larger work assignments into smaller segments; restructuring academic tasks to reduce the likelihood of student embarrassment in front of peers).

2.Promoting Positive Teacher-Student Interactions. Early in each class session, the teacher makes a point to engage in at least one positive verbal interaction with the student. Throughout the class period, the teacher continues to interact in positive ways with the student (e.g., brief conversation, smile, thumbs up, praise comment after a student remark in large-group discussion, etc.). In each interaction, the teacher adopts a genuinely accepting, polite, respectful tone.

3.Scanning for Warning Indicators. During the class session, the teacher monitors the target student’s behavior for any behavioral indicators suggesting that the student is becoming frustrated or angry. Examples of behaviors that precede non-compliance or open defiance may include stopping work; muttering or complaining; becoming argumentative; interrupting others; leaving his or her seat; throwing objects, etc.).

4.Exercising Emotional Restraint. Whenever the student begins to display problematic behaviors, the teacher makes an active effort to remain calm. To actively monitor his or her emotional state, the teacher tracks physiological cues such as increased muscle tension and heart rate, as well as fear, annoyance, anger, or other negative emotions. The teacher also adopts calming or relaxation strategies that work for him or her in the face of provocative student behavior—such as taking a deep breath or counting to 10 before responding.

5.Using Defusing Tactics. If the student begins to escalate to non-compliant, defiant, or confrontational behavior (e.g., arguing, threatening, other intentional verbal interruptions), the teacher draws from a range of possible deescalating strategies to defuse the situation. Such strategies can include private conversation with the student while maintaining a calm voice, open-ended questions, paraphrasing the student’s concerns, acknowledging the student’s emotions, etc.

6.Reconnecting with the Student. Soon after any in-class incident of student non-compliance, defiance, or confrontation, the teacher makes a point to meet with the student individually to discuss the behavioral incident, identify the triggers in the classroom environment that may have led to the problem, and brainstorm with the student to create a written plan to prevent the reoccurrence of such an incident. Throughout this conference, the teacher maintains .

References
•Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of office referrals and suspensions: Defensive management. Educational Psychology in Practice, 20, 103-115.

www.modelprogram.com/behaviorinstruction.html

This website shares short power points to describe how to implement school wide expected behavior for students of all ages. It has various rules of how to act in all areas or "locations" in the school which can be displayed for students as reminders as they migrate through the school.

Classroom Instruction that Works: Research Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
By Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, and Jan Pollock

Chapters 2 through 10 focuses on nine research based teaching strategies to use when working with students to ensure student success. Each strategy can be used to highlight student's accomplishments and can be incorporated into the organization of the classroom management. The strategies include:

1. Identifying Similarities and Differences
2. Summarizing and Note Taking
3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
4. Homework and Practice
5. Nonlinguistic Representation
6. Cooperative Learning
7. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
8. Generating and Testing Hypotheses
9. Cues, Questions and Advance Organizers

Marzano, R., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. McREL, VA: Alexandria.